古玩行2019精品推荐第12期:唐三彩马

2019-12-31 23:59:35 来源: 未知

唐三彩,中国古代陶瓷烧制工艺的珍品,全名唐代三彩釉陶器,是盛行于唐代的一种低温釉陶器,釉彩有黄、绿、白、褐、蓝、黑等色,而以黄、绿、白三色为主,所以人们习惯称之为“唐三彩”。因唐三彩最早、最多出土于洛阳,亦有“洛阳唐三彩”之称。1905年陇海铁路洛阳段修筑期间,在古都洛阳北邙山发现一批唐代墓葬,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称为“唐三彩”,并且沿用至今,享誉中外。

Tri color glazed pottery of Tang Dynasty, a treasure of ancient Chinese ceramic firing technology, is a kind of low-temperature glazed pottery popular in Tang Dynasty. The glaze color has yellow, green, white, brown, blue, black and other colors, mainly yellow, green and white, so people are used to call it "tri color glazed pottery of Tang Dynasty". It is also known as "Luoyang Tri Color of Tang Dynasty" because it was the earliest and most unearthed in Luoyang. In 1905, during the construction of Luoyang section of Longhai railway, a group of tombs of Tang Dynasty were found in beimangshan, the ancient capital of Luoyang. Later, people used to call this kind of pottery "tri colored pottery of Tang Dynasty", and it is still used to this day. It is well-known at home and abroad.

 

【藏品名称】:唐三彩马

[collection name]: Tang Sancai horse

唐三彩在中国文化中占有重要的历史地位,在中国的陶瓷史上留下了浓墨重彩的一笔。唐三彩诞生于唐代是有其文化渊源的。首先,成熟的陶瓷技术是唐三彩诞生的物质基础;其次,唐代盛极一时的厚葬之风是促成其诞生的直接导向;第三,唐代各个领域的历史文化是孕育其最好的艺术养料。唐三彩的诞生也是三彩釉装饰工艺的诞生,是釉彩装饰和胎体装饰结合的过程。辉煌璀璨的唐三彩,其绚丽斑斓的艺术效果在雕塑精美、造型生动的俑上得到了完美的发挥和淋漓尽致的展现。

Tri colored glazed pottery of Tang Dynasty occupies an important historical position in Chinese culture, which has left a strong mark in the history of Chinese ceramics. Tri colored glazed pottery was born in Tang Dynasty with its cultural origin. First of all, the mature ceramic technology is the material basis for the birth of the Tang Dynasty Sancai; second, the great popularity of the Tang Dynasty funeral custom is the direct guide to its birth; third, the history and culture in various fields of the Tang Dynasty is the best art nourishment for its birth. The birth of the three colors of the Tang Dynasty is also the birth of the three colors glaze decoration technology, which is the process of the combination of glaze decoration and carcass decoration. The brilliant tri colored pottery of the Tang Dynasty, with its gorgeous artistic effect, has been perfectly displayed and vividly displayed on the figurines with exquisite sculptures and vivid shapes.

根据考古发现,唐三彩是在高宗时期才开始生产的,因为在此之前的墓葬中没有发现过三彩器。高宗时唐王朝国力日渐强盛,统治阶级的奢侈之风也愈演愈烈。达官显贵们期盼死后仍能享受荣华富贵,因而在自己的墓穴中总要随葬大批珍宝和三彩器,从而使厚葬之风日盛。由于社会需求激增,使三彩器生产出现过度发展之势,唐王朝不得不设立专门机构负责管理和节制,并颁布规定对随葬三彩器实行限制,如规定各级官员的随葬品数量为:“三品以上九十事(件、套);五品以上六十事;九品以上四十事”,并规定各种器物的高度应在一尺之内。但根据考古发掘,当时的随葬冥器数量和高度大都超过了规定。有的三彩马已高达1米以上。唐朝末年,由于国力日衰,三彩器生产也开始逐步萎缩,质量大不如前。宋辽时期各地仍有三彩作坊存在,但工艺和装饰已与唐代三彩器有了明显的不同。

According to archaeological findings, the production of Sancai in the Tang Dynasty began in the period of Gaozong, because no tricolor was found in the tombs before that. When Emperor Gaozong was in power, the luxury of the ruling class became more and more intense. The dignitaries and dignitaries hope to enjoy the splendor and wealth after death, so they always bury a large number of treasures and tricolor tools in their tombs, so that the custom of thick burial will flourish. Due to the surge of social demand, the production of tricolor ware was over developed. The Tang Dynasty had to set up a special organization to manage and control the production of tricolor ware, and issued regulations to impose restrictions on the number of burial objects. For example, it stipulated that the number of burial objects of officials at all levels was: "more than 90 items (sets), more than 60 items, more than 40 items", and stipulated the height of various objects It should be within one foot. But according to the archaeological excavation, the number and height of the funerary devices at that time exceeded the regulations. Some tricolor horses are over 1 meter high. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, due to the decline of national strength, the production of tricolor ware began to shrink gradually, and the quality was not as good as before. There were still three color workshops in song and Liao dynasties, but the craft and decoration were obviously different from those in Tang Dynasty.

 

三彩马形体硕大、构造复杂,无法使用普通手工拉坯法来完成,所以多用模制法成型。虽然是合模制作,但所有三彩马都各具特点,几乎找不出完全一样的三彩马来。从现存三彩马可以看出,唐代三彩匠师们不仅对马的外貌特点十分熟悉,而且对马的神态、秉性也有深入的了解。因此,塑造起来得心应手。他们不仅使三彩马在外形上做到了十分逼真,而且充分发挥了艺术想像力,恰当地运用了艺术夸张的手法,使马的内在精神表现得淋漓尽致。

The tricolor horse is huge in shape and complex in structure, so it can't be finished by ordinary manual drawing method, so it is usually molded. Although it is made by die-casting, all tricolor horses have their own characteristics, and almost no identical tricolor horse can be found. It can be seen from the existing tricolor horses that the tricolor craftsmen in Tang Dynasty were not only familiar with the appearance and characteristics of the horses, but also had a deep understanding of their looks and temperament. Therefore, it is easy to shape. They not only make the tricolor horse very lifelike in appearance, but also give full play to the artistic imagination, and properly use the artistic exaggeration technique, so that the horse's inner spirit can be displayed incisively and vividly.

 

作为中国艺术瑰宝,唐三彩马可以多方位地折射出唐文化的绚丽光彩,不仅为人们提供了认识中国唐文化历史价值的宝贵实物资料,而且也使得一批又一批中外藏家为它的艺术魅力所倾倒,唐三彩马具有巨大的投资保值潜能,因而长期受到国内外商家的关注,并稳坐中国陶瓷艺术品拍卖最高价的宝座,文物价值高,倍受藏家珍藏

As a treasure of Chinese art, Tang tricolor horse can reflect the brilliant brilliance of Tang Wenhua in many aspects. It not only provides people with valuable material materials for understanding the historical value of Tang Wenhua in China, but also makes groups of Chinese and foreign collectors fall in love with its artistic charm. Tang tricolor horse has a huge potential for investment and value preservation. Therefore, it has long attracted the attention of domestic and foreign businesses and has been firmly seated on the highest auction price throne of Chinese ceramic art. Its cultural relics are of high value and are treasured by collectors.

 

 

 

 

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